France since 1871, however, examines the development of political opinions and changes within a contemporary culture.

"… His grave was destroyed two years after his death in the Thirty Years of War. Educational movement, founded on passion and principles helping students to develop consciousness of freedom, understand autoritarian tendencies and connect knowledge with power and the capability to take positive actions." Get a quick overview of this subject. A further instance of historical scholarship that is not mainstream includes the research of the French theorist Michel Foucault, who is the anti-historian at its finest.

Johannes Kepler , (born December 27th, 1571 in Weil der Stadt, Wurttemberg [Germany] – died November 15th, 1630, Regensburg), German astronomer who discovered three fundamental laws of motion of the planets, typically referred to as: (1) The planets orbit in elliptical orbits , with the Sun in one direction; (2) the time required to travel across any the arcs of a planet’s orbit is proportional with the size of the area between its central body as well as the circular arc (the "area rule") as well as (3) there exists an exact correlation to the squares between planets’ regular intervals and their cubes of average separation from their respective positions to the Sun (the "harmonic laws"). Foucault’s"histories" offers alternative perspectives on the making of sexuality, madness and the concept of crime and punishment. Kepler did not consider his discoveries "laws," as would be the norm following Isaac Newton derived them from an entirely new collection of physical laws. These accounts demonstrate how history can intersect and intersperse with other disciplines within sociology (e.g. sociology) and yield positive results. Kepler viewed them as celestial harmonies which reflect God’s plan to create the universe. in Discipline and Punishment, Foucault employs obscure historical sources to present a new perspective of the role of punishment and power in the modern world.

Kepler’s discoveries transformed Nicolaus Copernicus’ Sun-centered system into a dynamic universe, with the Sun active in pushing the planets in non-circular orbits. By simplifying, Foucault claims that, while the conventional accounts of history consider the contemporary system of penal justice as being far more compassionate in the treatment it gives criminals (for instance, not putting people under torture) In reality, the power of power is manifested by more subversive means. It was Kepler’s idea that astronomy was physical which solved a problem for other world-system builders of the 17th century one of who was Newton. For example, Foucault shows how certain "techniques of power" construct "docile" bodies that produce peace-loving people. In addition to his many other accomplishments He provided a novel and accurate explanation of the process that causes vision and he devised a new explanation of the behavior of light within the new telescope. In locating these new and obscure sources from the past (his method of "archaeology"), Foucault was able to uncover hidden power structures, examine the consequences of discourse practices (the importance of language in structuring experiences) and put the concept of knowledge to a critique. Kepler discovered a variety of new semiregular polyhedrons, and provided a new theoretical basis for astrology, while simultaneously limiting the area in which his predictions were considered to be reliable.

His work transformed our understanding of the power system and its consequences He came up with theories of societal control including his concept of surveillance society’. The list of his discoveries, however, is not enough to reveal the fact that they were for Kepler an element of a larger structure of knowledge. He also questioned the importance of ‘progress’ in the course of history. The synthesis of astrological, theological, and physical concepts that Kepler’s achievements in science resulted is unique and intriguing in its in its own right.

He was keen to see his work be applied to real-world situations in the sense these theories as well as theories shouldbe applied to the real world. However, due to the unique nature of Kepler’s findings it is a matter of intellectual empathy in order for the modern generation to comprehend how these lasting outcomes could have been derived from such a seemingly unattainable collection of ideas. "be a toolbox other people can peruse to find the essays tools they want to make use of however they want within their particular field… While Kepler’s work in science was primarily on astronomy, the subject in the way it was understood at the time–the study of the motions of celestial bodies was classified as a part of a larger field of study dubbed "the study of stars." The science of the stars was thought of as a multidisciplinary science comprised of both a mathematical and physical component, and exhibiting an affinity to other similar disciplines like the study of music (the study of the ratios of tone) as well as optics (the study of light). My work do not compose for an audience I write for people and not people who read." (Foucault 523-4, pp. 523-4) It was also divided into practical and theoretical categories.

It’s certainly been the case in some of his studies utilized by a wide array of different organizations. In addition to the theories of heavenly motions there was the creation of planetary tables and instruments. We now understand the way that studying history does not only teach us about the past but can also provide us with the theoretic tools that can facilitate the analysis on the current. Similarly the theories of astrology also had a practical component that was responsible for the creation of annual astrological predictions about cities, individuals and the human body and even the weather. These tools can be useful in discovering the fundamental structures.

In this context, Kepler made astronomy an integral component of natural philosophy, and Kepler did it in an unimaginable way creating remarkable contributions to astronomy as in all of its other auxiliary disciplines. But, the subject of history is extremely complicated and multifaceted. The best free Online European History Courses from Top Universities. Tools are simply tools. If you’re interested in learning more about Greece through beginning of the Bronze Age through the classical period, or you’re most interested in 19th-century Greece, it’s a online course available to increase your knowledge. They can assist but should not overtake thinking.

Plus, the best part is that these courses are absolutely free! Our own history is being written (History from below movement) Europe History Classes for Free. While it is important to be able to comprehend and read history, it’s vital for us to record our own stories and to understand historical events from fresh places. Here are some available online European History courses offered free by the top five schools: Yale University, the University of Massachusetts Boston, Open University, UC Berkeley, along with Utah State University. It is essential to write our own stories in our own words so that we can tell history our own tale. Yale University.

It is not enough to be handed over to society’s elites. Despite its status as an expensive Ivy League school, Yale isn’t afraid to share freely available information. The past was a bit different within The UK, The Communist Party Historians’ group was a key player within the History from Below Movement and included some highly acclaimed historians like Eric Hobsbawn, EP Thomson and Christopher Hill, amongst others. In the book Introduction to Ancient Greek History, get an introduction to Greek throughout The Classical Era and before.

They were mostly Marxist historians, and were interested in the creation of a new type of history that emphasized the ordinary people and their place in history. France since 1871, however, examines the development of political opinions and changes within a contemporary culture. They wrote a variety of books as well as an academic journal known as Past & Present that advocated this new method of the history of the world and continues to be a force to be reckoned with to this day. University of Massachusetts Boston. "Hobsbawm, Thompson et al have succeeded in redefining historical research in the context of studying humankind that one could study without bias and be deeply concerned about. The most popular free course provided through UMass Boston is Modern Irish History from 1800 until Present It introduces students to the nationalist spirit in independent Ireland. A thing that was shared by everyone and was also a gift to no one." (Calladine) Another course examines The Dark Ages, from the decline of the Roman empire, through the spreading of Christianity as well as Viking invasions. This idea was further developed in the late 19th century by Raphael Samuel who saw clearly the importance of the history.

The Open University.